The atmosphere has a mass of 5.15×1018 kg and contains something like 2.06×1015 kg of CO2.
That’s a lot of plant food.
The atmospheric pressure is10332.27 kg/m2 so if you were to gather ALL of the CO2 into a single area of the earth, you would have 1.99×1011 sq meters of CO2 covered surface or 199,000 sq km which is 77,000 sq miles. So that is the size of Belarus.
18 thoughts on “Random Math”
Re: “The atmosphere has a mass of 5.15×10^18 kg and at around 400 parts per million CO2 contains 2.06×10^15 kg of CO2.”
The average atmospheric CO2 concentration is about 420 ppmv (parts per million by volume), not ppmm (by mass). CO2 is (44.0095/28.9647) times as dense as dry air, so 420 ppmv CO2 = 638 ppmm = 3.277×10^15 kg.
(Even more plant food, a/k/a precious air fertilizer!)
The following is mostly copied from my web page:
tl;dr: 1 ppmv CO2 = 7.8024 Gt CO2 = 2.12940 PgC
To convert from PgC to Gt CO2 multiply by 3.66419
Details: The total amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can be directly calculated from the average atmospheric CO2 concentration, because the total mass of the Earth’s atmosphere is quite precisely known. (It is deduced from atmospheric pressure at sea-level, and the circumference of the Earth, adjusted to account for the volume of atmosphere displaced by land, water & ice above sea-level). The Earth’s atmosphere is generally estimated to have a mass of about 5.1480 × 10^18 kg including water vapor, or a dry mass of 5.1352 ±0.0003 × 10^18 kg. (Earlier estimates tended to be slightly higher, e.g. around 5.3 × 10^18 kg.)
[Ref: https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/clim/18/6/jcli-3299.1.xml ]
5.1352 × 10^18 kg = 5.1352 million Gt, so one ppm (part-per-million of dry atmosphere) weighs about 5.1352 Gt.
However, atmospheric gas concentrations are customarily expressed in ppmv (parts-per-million by volume, a/k/a molar fraction, µmol/mol), not by mass, so to calculate the mass of one ppmv of a particular gas requires scaling according to the molecular weight of the gas in question. (Note: if water vapor is ignored, as is usually the case, this is properly called the dry molar fraction.)
The average molecular weight of dry air is 28.9647 g/mol. So:
1 ppmv CO2 (molecular weight 44.0095)
has mass (44.0095 / 28.9647) × 5.1352 Gt
= 7.8024 Gt CO2, of which (12.0107 / 44.0095)-ths
= 2.12940 PgC (Gt C) is carbon.
1 Pg (petagram) = 1 Gt (gigatonne). So:
1 PgC (“petagram carbon”) is contained in
= 0.46962 ppmv CO2 which masses
= 3.66419 Gt CO2.
(Note: GCP rounds 3.66419 down to 3.664 MtCO2/MtC.)
[Ref: https://globalcarbonbudgetdata.org/downloads/latest-data/GCBv2022_dataset_descriptions_v1.pdf ]
420 ppmv CO2 has mass (420 ppmv × 7.8024 Gt/ppmv) = 3277.0 Gt = 3.277×10^15 kg.
That much CO2 contains 3277.0 Gt / 3.66419 Gt/PgC = 894.3 PgC
= (420 ppmv × 2.12940 PgC/ppmv) = 894.3 PgC
CORRECTION: 3277.0 Gt = 3.277×10^15 kg
(Sorry, I hit the wrong key.)
Jeff, if you’d care to change to two places where I erroneously wrote “^14” to be “^15” then I would be grateful.
When Thomas More was alive (13 th century) the intellectuals of the day would have lively debates about how many angels would fit on the head of a pin.
Seriously Jeff not much has changed in 800 years.
The problem today is how to have the truth prevail. How to explain that CO2 is not a problem and even more importantly to explain that the election results were fraudulent to people who don’t know how much CO2 is in the atmosphere and care even less.
I agree about CO2, Ray, but not about the 2020 Presidential election.
I concede that there was enough well-documented illegal activity going on in Fulton County, Georgia that, together with Biden’s narrow margin of victory in that state, it is quite plausible that Trump might have actually carried it, were it not for the fraud.
But Biden would still have won the Presidency. To win, Trump needed to carry four additional states (or three, if one of them was Pennsylvania). It is not plausible that there was enough fraud by the Democrats to have swung that many states for Biden.
That doesn’t change the fact that there was plenty of election fraud. Democrats didn’t win the Presidential election by fraud, but it clearly wasn’t for lack of trying.
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Georgia, Wisconsin and Arizona were all won by Trump. It’s not a close call either.
I have to agree that late Biden “votes” in those states were very suspicious. If you were sophisticated, your election fraud would be concentrated in those states where the election was close. You would need real time vote totals by midnight on Election Day, and then add “new” votes after midnight. And that appeared to happen in an unsophisticated way that was captured n video. That strategy means a minimum of fraud, in as few counties as possible, would be enough to change the election result.
The Census poll after the election, where people claimed to have cast 4 million fewer votes than actually counted, was unprecedented. People previously lied to claim they votes when they did not. That’s a common lie to pollsters. In 2020, did people suddenly start lying by actually voting, and then claiming they did not vote? Or were there a lot of ballots harvested and counted that did not come from legal voters?
I am 99.9% sure there was massive election fraud in 2020 compared with prior Presidential elections. I don’t know if that fraud changed the result of the election because from November Election Day to January 6 is not enough time to investigate election fraud even, if you wanted to. But few politicians of either party wanted to. Aftetr January 6, election fraud becomes a moot point.
Election fraud is one important element of totalitarianism.
An interesting article about 2022 Arizona election fraud I read today (second link) and recommended on my blog (first link):
Reuters claims that the report of 4 million fewer votes than were cast is false:
The disparity between election night returns and final tallies in several key states might be explained by absentee ballots, which in many states need only be postmarked by election day, and can be counted later. If Covid caused more urban Democrats to vote absentee, compared to rural Republicans who mostly voted in person, then the absentee votes would be lopsidedly Democrat, and those absentee votes which were received on or after election day are counted AFTER the “regular” election day votes.
Pew reports that, “Two-thirds of Trump voters say they voted in person, compared with 42% of Biden voters. Nearly four-in-ten Trump voters (37%) say they voted in person on Election Day, while just 17% of Biden voters say they cast their ballot at a polling place on Nov. 3”
That’s a very large disparity. Nationally, however, it was offset by the fact that Biden voters were apparently less likely to procrastinate than Trump voters. Pew reports that, “Biden voters were more likely than Trump voters to report having returned their absentee ballots in early: 82% of Biden voters who voted by absentee or mail ballot returned their ballots at least a week before Election Day, compared with 66% of Trump voters who voted this way.”
So 34% of Trump absentee votes were in the last week, but only 18% of Biden absentee votes were. However, only 33⅓% of Trump voters voted absentee, and 58% of Biden voters did. That means 0.34 × 0.3333 = 11.33% of Trump votes were final week absentees, compared to 0.18 × 0.58 = 10.44% of Biden voters who were final week absentees.
From those numbers we would not expect a Biden surge in late-counted absentee votes. However, those are national totals. The numbers surely varied from state to state, and if a state had a lot more late absentees from Biden voters, then that could explain a Biden surge in votes counted late.
It turns out that my analysis was wrong for several key states. Their laws prevent counting absentee votes early, so in those states even the earliest absentee ballots tend to be counted late. Since a lot more Biden voters than Trump voters voted absentee, that presumably accounts for Biden’s late surge in those states.
P.S. — Note the date on that article: October 29, 2020. That’s 5 days before the 2020 election. So the article could not have been motivated by Biden’s late surge in those states, since that hadn’t happened yet.
The things that give me confidence in my statement, beyond the actual video of the fraud in progress, is the statistics.
You cannot add 400,000 new votes for only one party in the Atlanta area and 600,000 across the state.
This is not possible without manipulation. Same in Michigan and when Pennsylvania added almost 400,000 completely one sided votes after 3 am, you know it’s done.
You can’t flip a coin that many times and come up jackass every time.
Didn’t you watch the 2020 election in real time. 6 states shut down at 10.30 pm on election night and Trump had won and was winning.
The rest is in the maths.
I would love you to critique Jeff’s maths regarding the impossibility of the November 4 ballot drops being non fraudulent.
My maths is not at that level.
It’s unfortunate that mules delivering ballots and late ballot arrivals, do not change a single vote. If Trump runs again, the same thingh will happen in 2024. Why change a strategy that worked?
Very few people were prosecuted for election fraud in 2020.
And waiting until the 2024 election means four more years for leftists to demonize Trump, than they had done by the 2020 election … and since 2015.
In November 2024, after over nine years of demonizing Trump, most leftists could feel it is there civic duty to prevent Trump from winning in 2024, by any means necessary.
They will have spent nine years listening to anti -Trump rhetocis, and rarely iif ever hearing a conservative point of view.
If Trump runs for President in 2024, election fraud will be even higher than in 2020, and he will lose. Leftists always seek power and control, know how to get it, and do not give it up easily.
Yes, and I remember going to bed thinking that Trump had won, which shocked me, because I believed the polls which indicated that he would lose badly. I was shocked again, on Wednesday, when it was reported that he had lost, after all.
The kicker is the swing states shut down at 10.30 pm on election night. What does shut down mean. Then all the swing states then produce tens/hundreds of thousands of votes in the middle of the night. With no maths I saw in your face fraud.
Be different if they showed everyone the votes. They haven’t let anyone see the late votes.
Nice stats; Dems vote early and republicans vote late, but all the middle of the night votes are Democrat. No maths, in your face fraud.
I would like a good mathematician to look at Mr id’s work and show wether has analysis is correct. Actually I would like a heap of good mathematicians to check Mr ID’s work and talk to each other and find the mathematical TRUTH.